6. The Recycling, Disposal and Reuse, Recycling Volume and Collection rate of Different Materials

6.1 Articles

Motor Vehicles

A.     Recycling, Disposal and Reuse

The main task for the waste motor vehicle disposal industry is to crush and sort the outer body of waste vehicles. The waste motor vehicle recycling and dismantling industry dismantles waste vehicles to recover the outer bodies, which are crushed into pieces, winnowed, separated by using magnetism and whirlpools, and finally sorted by labor. The separated metals, rubbers, plastics, glass sands and other reusable items are then recycled and reused.

 

B.      Recycling Volume and Collection rate

The current collection rate of waste motor vehicles is the estimated waste volume by ownership calculation method. The ownership calculation method is: Registered number of vehicles at the end of that year (A) = Registered number of vehicles at the end of previous year (B) + number of vehicles sold that year (C) ?number of waste vehicles of that year (D). So the estimated waste volume (D) = (B) + (C) ?(A). The collection rate is calculated as: Collection rate = Inspected and certified volume ?estimated waste volume (D). According to statistics, the 2015 certified resource collection rate of waste motor vehicles is about 58.49%


Bar Chart of the Number of Inspected and Certified Waste Motor Vehicles Recycled over then past 18 Years.


Tires

A.     Recycling, Disposal and Reuse

The principal handling method of waste tires is to crush them into pieces or powders, which will then be reused in cogeneration plants, cement plants, paper mills as auxiliary fuels or pyrolysis material in some cases. By heating them and adding cement agents, rubber powders can also be pressed into grass planting tiles, wood protecting tiles, rubber mats, rubber trail tiles, heat (sound) insulating mats, parking bumpers, corner protector strips, hanging seats and other crushproof facilities. Apart from renewable products, waste tires can also be used as additives for making synthetic rubber or other rubber products. In 2012, the ratios of reusing rubber pieces to make renewable products were: Auxiliary fuels 80%, renewable rubber materials 15% and pyrolysis materials 5%.

 

To promote the concept of reusing materials, EPA has cooperated with industry and academia to co-develop experimental renewable products from waste tires. By crushing waste tires into rubber powders, processing them in a high-temperature agglutination process and pressing those using molds, waste tires can be transformed into rubber acoustical boards as a green building material, which has largely increased the economic value of reusing waste tires.

 

B.      Recycling Volume and Collection Rate

As the number of automobiles and motorcycles increases, the usage of tires also gradually increases year by year. The inspected and certified volume of waste tires is maintained around 100,000 tons between 1999 and 2014 and, according to statistics, the certified collection rate of waste tires in 2015 was 69.55%.


Bar Chart of the Volume of Inspected and Certified Waste Tires Recycled over then past 18 Years.

 

Lead-Acid Batteries

A.     Recycling, Disposal and Reuse

The main source of waste lead-acid batteries are vehicle recycling and dismantling enterprises, automobile repair centers, motorcycle shops, relevant commercial institutions, and auto mechanical and electrical repair centers. Most of the waste lead-acid batteries are collected by wholesale recycling buyers, who go and collect recycling resources periodically; or, after the recycling resources are accumulated to a certain amount, the waste sources would notify the recycling industry for collection or would deliver the resources to responsible institutions by themselves.

 

The first step of handling waste lead-acid batteries is divided into machine crushing or manual cutting: Machine crushing refers to the dismantling process where the entire waste lead-acid battery is inserted into equipment for crushing, where the pieces will then be processed by a sorting machine to recycle the lead and plastic parts. Manual cutting involves placing the entire waste lead-acid battery on a mechanical cutting machine, then the battery’s upper cover will be cut manually and the lead plate will be taken out. The plastic shell will be crushed into plastic pieces by crushing equipment, whereas the recycled lead-containing materials will be sent into separators or refining furnaces and made into lead ingots. The lead-ingots can be sold to lead-acid battery manufacturers or other metal enterprises as a raw material; and the plastic pieces can be sold to plastic manufacturers, who will reprocess them into plastic pellets as a raw material for making plastic products. The waste battery acid collected in the dismantling process will be processed by sewage treatment facilities.

 

B.      Recycling Volume and Collection Rate

The inspected and certified volume of waste lead-acid batteries is between 30,000 to 45,000 tons per year and is gradually increasing. The reason that the inspected and certified volume decreased in 2009 was that there was only one subsidized waste lead-acid battery organization. In early 2009 (February to April), this company underwent annual equipment maintenance, which resulted in a large decrease in smelting works and consumption of lead. As a consequence, the certified resource recycling volume of waste batteries also had a big drop. However, as the international lead price has been continuously growing along with the demand for lead, the resource recycling volume of waste lead-acid batteries has also increasing over the last few years. According to statistics gathered, the certified resource collection rate of waste lead-acid batteries in 2015 was 93.65%.


Bar Chart of the Inspected and Certified Volume of Waste Lead-Acid Batteries Recycled over then past 18 Years.




 

Electronic, Electric Appliances and IT Equipments

A.     Recycling, Disposal and Reuse

Apart from trading them as second hand products, giving them to family members and friends as gifts, or simply storing them at home, waste electronic and electric appliances and IT equipments can also be recycled through distributors/ retailers, cleaning teams, junk dealers/ resource recycling enterprises, waste pickers, religious and social welfare groups or other recycling channels.

 

The disposal enterprises for waste electronic and electric appliances and IT equipments in Taiwan have achieved a certain level of disposal techniques and facilities. Under a request following legislative ordinances, their disposal methods can be classified as manual dismantling, CRT separation, fluorescent powder removing, recycling PUR form and mixed waste plastics, refrigerant extracting and crushing IC boards.

 

B.      Recycling Volume and Collection Rate

Regarding recycling achievements over the last five years (from 2011 to 2015), the average annual certified recycling volume of waste electronic and electric appliances is around 91,320 tons, where the average annual certified collection rate is 72.57%; the average annual certified recycling volume of waste IT equipments is 35,298 tons, and the average annual certified collection rate is 41.89%.


Bar Chart of the Inspected and Certified Volume of Electronic and Electrical Appliances over the past 18 Years.


Bar Chart of the Inspected and Certified Volume of IT Equipments over the past 18 Years.


Light Sources

A.     Recycling, Disposal and Reuse

The waste fluorescent tubes and bulbs can be recycled through cleaning teams (recycling trucks), vendors and recycling enterprises. As fluorescent tubes contain mercury that can cause danger if it breaks, they must be stored properly. To facilitate the public participating in recycling activities, in July of 2003, EPA released the statement of “Light Bulb Vendors Shall Install Resource Recycling Facilities and Other Binding Matters? which stipulates that light bulb vendors to install resource recycling facilities and implement recycling work, and regulates the specifications and locations of their resource recycling facilities. It is estimated that there are now about 3,300 recycling points established by vendors nationwide.

 

At the moment, there are in total five disposal enterprises (six plants) for waste light bulbs in Taiwan. Four of them have adopted the dry-method technology from the Swedish company MRT (Mercury Recovery Technology). That is, after cutting the fluorescent tubes, the fluorescent powders and mercury vapors are first, vacuumed out. The tubes are then crushed and renewable materials such as glass, iron and non-ferrous metals (coppers and aluminums) are separated. The fluorescent powders are then distilled to recycle the solid mercury, whereas the mercury vapor will be absorbed by active carbon.

 

Another disposal enterprise has adopted technology that combines dry- and wet-methods. That is, water is used to wash the glass and the mercury is recovered from the sludge. The remaining sludge, will then be buried once it meets the TCLP standard. It is estimated that the maximum disposal volume in the nation can reach more than 2,500 tons every month.

 

B.      Recycling Volume and Collection Rate

As the recycling and disposal system of waste light resource is complete and the competent authority has sustainably held recycling propagation of waste light resource, the recycling volume of waste light resource has grown from 523 tons in 2002 to 5,082 tons in 2015; there were totally 1,462 kilograms of mercury recycled. Following is the diagram showing the certified recycling volume of waste light resource from 2002 to 2015.


Bar Chart of Inspected and Certified Volume of Light Bulbs over the past 14 Years.


Dry Batteries

A.     Recycling, Disposal and Reuse

Waste dry batteries can be put in the battery recycling bins installed in vendor locations such as convenience stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets, cosmetics stores, photographic print shops, network and communication stores and photographic equipment retailers, or be given to cleaning teams?resource recycling trucks for recycling. In addition, communities, schools, agencies and groups, organizations, armies, and prisons also collect dry batteries spontaneously and give them to recycling enterprises for recycling. Therefore, the recycling channels in Taiwan for waste dry batteries are quite common and practical.

 

Dry batteries can be disposed inside or outside the nation. There are total 5 subsidized waste dry battery disposal enterprises sent batteries for disposing outside the nation, where subsidized organizations shall sort dry batteries first and submit an export application to EPA accordingly. Once the application is approved, the enterprises can then export waste dry batteries abroad for disposal processing. On the other hand, there are two subsidized waste dry battery disposal enterprises within the nation. They mainly dispose cylinder-shaped zinc-manganese and alkaline-manganese batteries.

 

B.      Recycling Volume and Collection Rate

Over the last 3 years (from 2013 to 2015), the averaged annual certified recycling volume of dry batteries was around 4,300 tons, the average annual certified collection rate was 46%. This collection rate now exceeds 45%,which is the European Union's 2016 target.


Bar Chart of the Inspected and Certified Volume of Dry Batteries over the past 18 Years.



6.2 Waste Containers

 

Generally speaking, in order to facilitate recovery and recycling work, waste containers are divided into 4 categories based on their materials: Plastics, metals (iron, aluminum), glasses and papers (paper tableware, paper boxes, aluminum foil packages). As containers for pesticide and special environmental agents contain hazardous substances, it is necessary to separate them from general waste containers during the disposing process. Therefore, these types of containers are counted independently as the 5th category. Following are descriptions of the collection rate, recycling volume, and recycling, disposal and reuse methods of these five categories.

 

Used waste containers shall first be washed, flattened and stored in different categories to save the transportation cost and to enhance the recycling and renewable quality. Besides, depending on the different location, consumers can recycle the containers through cleaning teams?recycling trucks and recycling enterprises, or at public recycling points. The recycled waste containers will then be delivered to different disposal enterprises based on their characteristics and will be disposed accordingly.

 

The collection rate of waste containers has been continuously growing, from 38.1% in 2001 to 73.65% in 2015. The collection rate over the last 5 years was between 69% and 76%.


Collection rate of Waste Containers over The Past 18 Years



Year

Collection Rate
of Waste
Containers

1998

-

1999

42.83%

2000

45.53%

2001

38.1%

2002

40.2%

2003

49.1%

2004

49.4%

2005

49.2%

2006

60.91%

2007

64.21%

2008

65.95%

2009

72.18%

2010

69.31%

2011

75.40%

2012

75.66%

2013

76.55%

2014

76.43%

2015

73.65%


A.   Recycling Volume and Recycling, Disposal and Reuse of Waste Plastic Containers

Waste plastic containers made of PET, PVC, PP, PE and PS materials shall be recycled in accordance with the regulations announced publicly. Following are descriptions of the recycling volume and recycling, disposal and reuse methods of containers in different materials.

 

1.       Waste PET Containers

Over the last 5 years (from 2011 to 2015, the average certified recycling volume of waste PET containers was 99,542 tons . The recycled waste PET containers are crushed into pieces and processed into renewable material in granules or monofilaments, which are the raw materials for textile and can be made into clothes, carpets or shoe soles.


2.       Waste PVC Containers

As the incineration of PVC containers can release dioxins, the competent authority has increased the recycling, clearance and disposal fees for making PVC containers since January 2008, expecting that enterprises would that decrease the usage of PVC. From the certified recycling volume after year 2009, it is clear that this economic DIS incentive has effectively decreased the usage of PVC, when its average annual certified recycling volume fell to 824 tons over the last 5 years.


The reuse method of waste PVC containers is to transform them first into granules in granulation plants, then sell them to plastic product manufacturers that use injection molding technology to make different kinds of plastic products such as tags, key rings, toys etc..


3.       Waste PP/PE Containers

Over the last 5 years, the averaged annual certified recycling volume of waste PP/PE containers was 83,019 tons. The principal reuse method of PP/PE containers is granulation, where the granules can be used to make daily use articles such as tool storage boxes, stationery supplies, mats and other objects in forms of soft plastics.


4.       Waste PS Containers (non-foam)

Over the last 5 years, the average annual certified recycling volume of non-foam PS container was 6,545 tons. The crushed pieces of non-foam PS containers are usually sent to plants to transform them into granules, which is a plastic raw material that can be sold to plastic manufacturers that use injection molding technology to make different kinds of plastic articles such as office supplies, stationery supplies, CD boxes etc.


5.       Waste PS Containers (foam)

As foam PS is light and is a good heat insulator, this material is commonly used for instant noodle bowls, supermarket trays and cold drink cups. As the government implemented a Styrofoam restriction policy in 2002, the usage of foam PS containers had sharp drop but then steadily grew back by 2006. Over the last 5 years, its averaged annual certified recycling volume was 1,915 tons.

 

After recycled waste foam PS containers are melted into chunks by the disposal industry, they will then be sent to plants and transformed into granules as a plastic raw material, which will then be sold to plastic manufacturers to make different kinds of plastic products such as car bumpers, and leisure products ( Frisbees , decoration plates) etc..


Recycling Volume of Waste Containers over The Past 18 Years


Unit: Tons

Year

Waste

PET

Waste

PVC

Waste PP/PE

Waste PS (non foam)

Waste PS (foam)

1998

33,564

4,509

4,829

44

2,605

1999

42,234

2,582

11,574

206

2,687

2000

47,429

3,127

22,544

562

2,921

2001

56,020

2,992

33,826

1,664

2,957

2002

63,317

2,377

41,264

2,021

2,305

2003

69,083

2,360

57,262

1,930

491

2004

80,358

2,532

56,495

2,468

342

2005

81,828

1,785

60,107

3,902

424

2006

91,798

1,581

70,745

6,151

827

2007

97,298

1,589

70,545

5,870

1,085

2008

93,863

1,719

66,685

5,534

1,460

2009

99,671

1,457

71,137

5,624

1,788

2010

104,548

1,305

77,750

6,188

2,227

2011

101,437

1,147

81,527

6,952

2,485

2012

96,134

1,108

82,332

7,024

2,656

2013

101,841

862

86,158

6,830

1,886

2014

102,024

601

84,251

6,282

1,346

2015

96,274

402

80,827

5,637

1,200

                                     

























B.  
Recycling Volume and Recycling, Disposal and Reuse of Waste Metal Containers.


1.       Waste Iron Containers

Regarding the recycling volume of iron containers over the years, it is important to note first that the disposal method of waste iron containers was revised in April 2005, when the motor vehicle industry took over the responsibility for crushing, sorting and disposing waste iron containers. Therefore, the previously subsidized three steel plants had to stop recycling and disposing waste iron containers and, as a consequence, the recycling volume dropped in 2005. However, as waste motor vehicle disposal enterprises have gradually qualified to become subsidized organizations and started recycling and disposal work, the recycling volume of waste iron containers has continuously grown. Over the last 5 years (from 2011 to 2015), the average annual recycling volume of this material has reached 54,591 tons.

 

After removing the paint, waste iron containers are sent to steel smelting plants as a mixed material for the smelting process to be reused in different types of steel products.

 

2.       Waste Aluminum Containers

As the number of subsidized organizations for waste aluminum containers has been gradually decreasing since 2003, and partial waste aluminum containers in Taiwan were purchased and exported to regions like China and South-East Asia, the inspected and certified recycling volume of aluminum container has decreased from 4,404 tons in 2009 to 474 tons in 2015. The average annual certified recycling volume was 5,119 tons over the last 5 years.

 

The reuse method of waste aluminum containers is to smelt them first and transform them into aluminum ingots or aluminum-magnesium composite ingots, which will then be processed to make products like auto-rims, and aluminum doors and windows for households.



Recycling Volume of Waste Metal Containers over The Past 18 Years

Unit: Tons

Year

Waste Iron Container s

Waste Aluminum Containers

1998

22,046

2,912

1999

55,194

8,264

2000

53,557

9,393

2001

61,489

11,295

2002

55,514

15,090

2003

43,381

12,892

2004

19,500

12,271

2005

8,589

10,669

2006

43,642

7,914

2007

41,913

6,112

2008

46,313

6,073

2009

59,454

4,404

2010

48,149

6,116

2011

64,094

5,892

2012

61,488

7,182

2013

52,497

7,422

2014

52,686

4,627

2015

42,189

474


C.   Recycling Volume and Recycling, Disposal and Reuse of Waste Glass Containers.

The recycling volume of waste glass containers has shown a gradual increase over the years, Its average annual certified recycling volume was 227,484 tons over the last 5 years (from 2011 to 2015).

 

Waste glass containers do not have obvious physical differences, but vary in colors, such as white, dark-brown and green. Clear waste glass containers have the highest reuse value as they can be reprocessed into containers or colored by adding other pigments; dark-brown waste glass containers are mainly reprocessed into dark-brown bottles. As the market still has demand for dark-brown bottles, they also have a high reuse value that ranks after the clear bottles. If waste glass containers are not separated by color, they are mainly reprocessed into a green building material or a mixed material for glasphalts. According to a 2015 analysis, about 60% of certified and recycled glass containers were, after crushing and disposal processes, used as a raw material for making bottles, and 40% of waste glass containers were processed into a green building material or a mixed material for glasphalts.

 

Recycling Volume of Waste Glass Containers over The Past 18 Years

Unit: Tons

Year

Recycling
Volume

1998

47,116

1999

45,913

2000

72,375

2001

58,689

2002

83,365

2003

163,400

2004

157,535

2005

149,845

2006

166,249

2007

197,839

2008

194,694

2009

207,696

2010

211,611

2011

238,334

2012

221,570

2013

222,511

2014

227,743

2015

227,262


D.   Recycling Volume and Recycling, Disposal and Reuse of Waste Paper Containers.

1.       Waste Paper Containers

When the competent authority implemented a policy restricting use of disposable plastic tableware in October 2002, food and beverage industries had to follow the policy and use disposable tableware made of paper. This led to a steady increase in the certified recycling volume of waste paper tableware from 2003 to 2006. However, starting from 2007, the purchasing price of waste paper became higher than the subsidized rate of waste paper tableware, a portion of the waste paper tableware returned to the recycling system for general paper. Therefore, the certified volume of waste paper containers decreased from 4,173 tons in 2007 to 3,727 tons in 2014 and increased to 6,726 tons in 2015. The average annual certified recycling volume was 3,984 tons over the last 5 years.

 

2.       Waste Aluminum Foil Packages and Waste Paper Packages

Regarding the recycling volume of waste foil aluminum packages and waste paper packages over recent years, the average annual certified recycling volume of waste aluminum foil packages was 8,258 tons and 7,623 tons for waste paper packages.

 

The reuse method of waste paper containers (waste paper tableware, waste paper boxes and waste aluminum packages) is to disintegrate them into pulp first and then extract 75% to 85% paper fibers. After the separation, the class A long-fiber pulps can be used to make industrial papers, which is the raw material for core papers, coated duplex boards and cement bags.


Recycling Volume of Waste Paper Containers over The Past 18 Years

Unit: Tons

Year

Waste Paper
Tableware

Waste Aluminum Foil
Packages

Waste Paper
Packages

1998

2,012

6,448

582

1999

2,815

4,873

1,922

2000

3,206

7,673

3,161

2001

3,187

9,201

3,979

2002

3,201

8,444

4,060

2003

5,568

5,742

3,410

2004

9,496

6,479

4,386

2005

6,697

7,744

4,606

2006

7,700

10,382

6,407

2007

4,173

10,762

6,446

2008

1,843

9,799

5,702

2009

4,292

10,972

7,488

2010

2,337

9,089

7,307

2011

2,338

9,389

7,274

2012

3,153

8,669

7,272

2013

3,975

8,124

7,204

2014

3,727

7,611

8,383

2015

6,726

7,495

7,981


E.   Recycling Volume and Recycling, Disposal and Reuse of Waste Containers for Pesticide and Special Environmental Agents


The current sources of waste pesticide containers are mainly local farmers?associations, cleaning teams, pesticide vendors and general farmers. The averaged annual certifies recycling volume for waste containers of pesticide and special environmental agents over the last five years (from 2011 to 2015) was 908 tons.

 

The method of disposing waste containers for pesticide and special environmental agents before year 2009 was to separate glass and metals from the plastics by washing them first. During the washing process, glass and metals would produce pieces of glass, iron metals and aluminum metals, which would then be sorted, sold and reused. Plastic components were dehydrated after the washing and reprocessed into plastic granules, which can also be sold and reused. Due to the Dalia air pollution incident in 2009, the only disposal enterprise in Taiwan was affected and stopped processing waste pesticide containers. On the 12th of May 2009, the EPA announced the “Pesticide and Special Environmental Agent Plastic Container Incineration Treatment Working Guidelines? which stated new disposal methods, specifically, crush the waste containers into pieces first and send them into a rotary kiln for high-temperature incineration at 800℃ for 2 hours. This process was adopted to replace the original ways of incinerating hazardous industrial wastes using heavy oil. As for the pesticide gas residue, it enters a secondary chamber for high-temperature incineration at 1,200℃ to ensure a complete disposal procedure of the waste containers. The certified recycling volume from 2010 to 2011 was relatively low as disposal enterprises were undergoing annual repairs for incinerators and were still adjusting disposal methods.


Recycling Volume of Waste Containers for
Pesticides and Special Environmental Agents over The Past 18 Years

Unit: Tons

Year

Recycling
Volume

1998

620

1999

665

2000

738

2001

886

2002

961

2003

1,004

2004

1,123

2005

888

2006

1,074

2007

1,101

2008

995

2009

790

2010

608

2011

369

2012

135

2013

1,105

2014

1,921

2015

1,010

The inspected and certified recycling volume of waste containers were compared in the bar chart below.

Bar Chart of the Inspected and Certified Volume of Waste Containers over the past 18 Years


Bar Chart of the Inspected and Certified Volume of Waste Containers over the past 18 Years (continued)